Our Ammonia production system is ready for commercialization with an exclusive license to the patented technology on which it is based.

Our research, led by Dr. Meenesh R. Singh and his doctoral student, Ishita Goyal,  and collaborated on with others at UIC and beyond, gives convincing evidence in support of our claim that we have discovered a highly active and selective catalytic system that will enable cost-effective and efficient storage of surplus renewable electricity in the form of liquid Ammonia. It is with this conclusive paper in hand that we are now actively seeking funding to support the buildup of this technology.

The reaction is fed with only water, air, and renewable electricity. This is a highly energy-efficient reaction which will allow us to store renewable power at a high rate and in a form that is usable by every industry in the world.

Green Ammonia has enormous potential in the energy market sector as a stable and safe Hydrogen carrier. It can be produced from any primary energy source (e.g. wind, solar, nuclear, pumped hydro, ocean tidal, etc.); it has significant storage and delivery systems already in place; it is environmentally friendly, and therefore sustainable (no carbon emissions); and, with our proven technology, it can be cost-effective vs. gasoline, natural gas, batteries, biofuels, hydrogen, and even coal. It has demonstrated practical real-world application as a fuel (e.g. diesel engines, fuel cells, gas turbines, etc.), and is already used safely around the world with a hazard rating similar to gasoline. Our Ammonia will also be able to be produced domestically, in a scalable way that can meet the growing global demand for zero-carbon fuel

Ammonia unlocks the potential of a sustainable economy by making renewable energy delivery safe and affordable.

Techno-Economic Analysis

A previously reported preliminary techno-economic model of a similar electrocatalytic system was utilized for green NH3 production scaled up linearly to an industrial level of 1,000,000 tons per annum, assuming no benefits of economics of scale. The reported CapEx estimates of $384 per ton20 at 4 mA/cm2 were scaled linearly with NH3 current density. Since the operating pressures in this study are higher (~ 20 bar) than the system used in previous techno-economic analysis, we also considered additional CapEX costs associated with high-pressure autoclave-based electrochemical cells for continuous operation. We assumed a single autoclave unit as 40 stacks of 500 electrochemical cells of 0.2 m2 area electrode connected with a single high-pressure line. The additional CapEX cost associated with one high-pressure autoclave is $100,000. The number of autoclave units required scales linearly with current density. Fig.8 A shows a drastic reduction in CapEx cost with increasing current density. At an optimal NH3 current density of 100 mA/cm2, the estimated CapEx is $84 per ton of NH3, which is 78% less than the ambient process ($384 per ton)20 and 84% less than a modified green Haber-Bosch process ($522 per ton).

All citations are available in our recent ACS publication, which we are happy to furnish upon request. 

The OpEx cost includes the cost of electricity to operate autoclaves and the cost of utilities to operate ancillary equipment. The cost of electricity was assumed to be $15/MWh, while the utility requirement for ancillary equipment was fixed at $88 per ton of NH3. The OpEx cost increases linearly with the cell voltage, as shown in Fig. 8B. As shown in Fig. 7, it requires a minimum of 4.21 V with H2O as a proton source and 2.98 V with H2 as a proton source. This results in the bare minimum OpEx cost of $287 per ton with H2O and $229 per ton with H2 as proton sources. Considering the required overpotential losses at the anode and cathode, a cell voltage of 6 V is a reasonable operating potential for practical purposes. At the operating potential of 6V, the OpEx cost is $372 per ton with energy efficiency of ~20%. This projected OpEx cost is 53% less than the ambient pressure system ($790 per ton) and 18% less than a modified green Haber-Bosch process ($454 per ton).

Figure 8: CapEx and OpEx estimates. (A) Total CapEx cost of our plant for different NH3 current densities of the high-pressure electrochemical cell. The CapEx estimate includes the cost of high-pressure autoclave-based electrolyzers and ancillary equipment such as air separators, compressors, heat exchangers, transformers, chillers etc. (B) Total OpEx cost as a function of cell voltage of the electrochemical cell. The OpEx cost includes electricity consumption of electrochemical cells and utilities to operate ancillary equipment.

The operation of this plant at 100 mA/cm2 of NH3 current density and cell voltage of 3V would result in a Green NH3 cost of $385 per ton, which would enable a >53% reduction in NH3 cost from a modified Green Haber-Bosch system of the same scale. This substantial reduction in both capital and operational expenditures underscores the economic viability of our high-pressure electrocatalytic system on a large scale. The findings point to the potential for a profound shift in the Ammonia production industry, which promises environmental benefits and significant economic advantages. We anticipate the market price of green NH3 production based on this process to be feasible below <$400/ton, including a sub-four-year discounted payback period on capital investment. The theoretical at-scale minimum price with this technology is below $100/ton.